Info

sun

The Sun
Observation data
Mean distance
from Earth
1 au ≈ 1.496×108 km
8 min 19 s at light speed
Visual brightness (V) −26.74[1]
Absolute magnitude 4.83[1]
Spectral classification G2V[2]
Metallicity Z = 0.0122[3]
Angular size 31.6–32.7 minutes of arc[4]
Adjectives Solar
Orbital characteristics
Mean distance
from Milky Way core
≈ 2.7×1017 km
27,200 light-years
Galactic period (2.25–2.50)×108 yr
Velocity ≈ 220 km/s (orbit around the center of the Milky Way)
≈ 20 km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood)
≈ 370 km/s[5] (relative to the cosmic microwave background)
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius 695,700 km[6]
109 × Earth[7]
Equatorial circumference 4.379×106 km[7]
109 × Earth[7]
Flattening 9×10−6
Surface area 6.09×1012 km2[7]
12,000 × Earth[7]
Volume 1.41×1018 km3[7]
1,300,000 × Earth
Mass (1.98855±0.00025)×1030 kg[1]
333,000 × Earth[1]
Average density 1.408 g/cm3[1][7][8]
0.255 × Earth[1][7]
Center density (modeled) 162.2 g/cm3[1]
12.4 × Earth
Equatorial surface gravity 274.0 m/s2[1]
27.94 g
27,542.29 cgs
28 × Earth[7]
Escape velocity
(from the surface)
617.7 km/s[7]
55 × Earth[7]
Temperature Center (modeled): 1.57×107 K[1]
Photosphere (effective): 5,772 K[1]
Corona: ≈ 5×106 K
Luminosity (Lsol) 3.828×1026 W[1]
≈ 3.75×1028 lm
≈ 98 lm/W efficacy
Mean radiance (Isol) 2.009×107 W·m−2·sr−1
Age ≈ 4.6 billion years[9][10]
Rotation characteristics
Obliquity 7.25°[1]
(to the ecliptic)
67.23°
(to the galactic plane)
Right ascension
of North pole[11]
286.13°
19 h 4 min 30 s
Declination
of North pole
+63.87°
63° 52' North
Sidereal rotation period
(at equator)
25.05 d[1]
(at 16° latitude) 25.38 d[1]
25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s[11]
(at poles) 34.4 d[1]
Rotation velocity
(at equator)
7.189×103 km/h[7]
Photospheric composition (by mass)
Hydrogen 73.46%[12]
Helium 24.85%
Oxygen 0.77%
Carbon 0.29%
Iron 0.16%
Neon 0.12%
Nitrogen 0.09%
Silicon 0.07%
Magnesium 0.05%
Sulfur 0.04%